I recently read one of the clearest descriptions of the difference between conviction and condemnation:
We can trust that it is the Holy Spirit who is leading us when he aligns our hearts with Scripture and convicts us of its truth. This conviction does not equal condemnation because those who walk in the Spirit are free from condemnation, but his conviction does lead to godly sorrow and repentance. We can distinguish condemnation from conviction in that condemnation is general, accusatory, and leads to hopelessness. Conviction is specific, gently firm, and hopeful; conviction reminds us that the Holy Spirit will help us change.
From Christine Hoover’s book “From Good to Grace”, pg. 101